Monday, May 25, 2020

Merchant of Venice Essay The Role of Jessica - 500 Words

The Role of Jessica in Merchant of Venicenbsp;nbsp; nbsp; The character of Jessica, in Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice serves an important function in respect to her father, Shylock. By deserting him for a Christian husband, Shylock loses the last person with whom he has any kind of tie. Shylock’s isolation becomes a vital part of his character, and drives his merciless actions against Antonio. Throughout the play, everyone who could claim any type of social or familial tie to Shylock leaves him. Launcelot the Clown, moves to a Christian master, who has the,grace of God... (II,ii L.139) His own daughter Jessica forsakes him, and his entire Jewish culture, to marry Lorenzo, and become a Christian. Thus Shylock has no one from†¦show more content†¦He can no longer think of people as separate from money. His bond with Antonio is thrown to such extremes because Antonio does not exist as a person in Shylock’s eyes. Instead, Antonio becomes a symbol for the kind of family Shylock yearns for. This desire comes out by Shylock’s words in the courtroom scene. After his defeat, Shylock tells the group that no matter the judgement, he is still ruined. He says: Nay, take my life and all! Pardon not that! You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house. You take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. (IV,i L.372-5) By removing from him his wealth, the court sentences Shylock to virtual nothingness. Shylock’s words here are loaded with emotion because he has been reduced to nothing. His selfish ways drive him from his entire house, and now those same feelings cause his money to also disappear. Shylock’s reply to the sentence in the passage above shows his isolation from the world of Christian motives. Money is truly Shylock’s only relative at the end of the play. Jessica’s disappearance becomes doubly-damaging with her theft of the gemstones, and the three thousand ducats. By taking money, Jessica not only removes herself from her father, but also steals the object through which Shylock has attached himself to. Shylock yearns for something to hold on to. HisShow MoreRelated Is The Merchant of Venice an Anti-Semitic Play? Essay1491 Words   |  6 PagesIs The Merchant of Venice an Anti-Semitic Play?      Ã‚   The Merchant of Venice features a Jewish character that is abused and slandered by nearly every character in the play. Throughout the play the behavior of these characters seems justified. In this way, The Merchant of Venice appears to be an anti-Semitic play. However, The Merchant of Venice contains several key instances, which can be portrayed in a way that criticizes anti-Semitism. The first instance occurs in Act 1, scene 3 whenRead MoreThroughout A Patriarchal History, Some Bright Women Have1325 Words   |  6 Pagesbelieve that Venice is a male dominated society in William Shakespeare’s play, The Merchant of Venice, if one reads closely he/she will discover that most of the major decisions, that affected the route of the play, were originally made by women. In her essay, Christine Hoff Kraemer writes, with a feminist approach, about women in this play and their role in power. Two main female characters, Portia: a wealthy and witty daughter bound to her de ceased father’s demand of marriage, and Jessica: the JewishRead MoreReligion in The Merchant of Venice Essay1956 Words   |  8 Pages Religion was a major factor in a number of Shakespeare’s plays. Religion motivated action and reasoning. In Shakespeare’s â€Å"The Merchant of Venice,† religion was more than a belief in a higher being; it reflected moral standards and ways of living. In the â€Å"Merchant of Venice,† â€Å"a Christian ethic of generosity, love, and risk-taking friendship is set in pointed contrast with a non-Christian ethic that is seen, from a Christian point of view, as grudging, resentful, and self-calculating.† (BevingtonRead MoreThe Rings of Power: Symbolic Exchange in the Merchant of Venice1595 Words   |  7 PagesThe Rings of Power: Symbolic Exchange in The Merchant of Venice Rings are significant to the narrative of The Merchant of Venice for several reasons. Firstly, as symbols of love, wealth and power. Secondly, as a means through which Portia gives and then regains control of herself, her weath and power and finally, the theft and sale of Leahs turquoise ring acts as a source of sympathy towards Shylock and allows him to parallel the Christian husbands, Bassanio and Graziano. A ring is, in andRead MoreThe Merchant of Venice939 Words   |  4 PagesClaudius Introduction This essay looks into the lives of Shylock and Antonio. These are two of Shakespearean antagonists of all time. They are alike in more ways than one. Shylock in Merchant of Venice is a Jewish moneylender based in Venice. He has been tormented and repressed mainly by the Christian population. One finds it easy to sympathize with him mainly because he has his own reasons to be loathing, greedy, and miserly. This ends up making the entire ‘Merchant of Venice’ bittersweet. This wasRead MoreInfluential Fathers2006 Words   |  9 PagesEssay #3 Research Essay April 23, 2013 The Influential Fathers Many people underestimate the significance of a father in a child’s life. The father has some of the most prevalent influences on a child, especially while the child is young. A child’s happiness while growing up is largely influenced by the type of father he has and the relationship they bare. Some children will end up resenting their father moreRead MoreShylock: Villain or Victim6154 Words   |  25 Pageshe cares only for its sentimental value. Out upon her! Thou torturest me, Tubal: it was my turquoise; / I had it of Leah when I was a bachelor: / I would not have given it for a wilderness of monkeys. He wants revenge: Perhaps it is the loss of Jessica as well as all the harsh treatment he has suffered from Antonio - and others - over the years that makes him bitter enough to ask for Antonios pound of flesh. He cleverly argues in Act III, scene 1 that he is as much a man as a Christian is and soRead MoreThe Merchant Of Venice Anti-Semite Essay2020 Words   |  9 PagesNowadays, many people consider the play â€Å"The Merchant of Venice† is one of the most problematic dramas written by Shakespeare because it promotes the prejudice against Jews or the ideology of anti-Semitism. In fact, the play depicts the villain as a devil, a usurer and a Jew who attempts to murder the good and godlike Christians for they have performed good will and mercy toward other people and ruined the Jew’s business. Whether it is his intention or not, Shakespeare chooses to create the imageRead MoreThe Role of Prejudice in the Merchant of Venice2395 Words   |  10 PagesThe Role of Prejudice In The Merchant of Venice This paper discusses the subject of prejudice in the William Shakespeare play, The Merchant of Venice. I. Introduction William Shakespeares satirical comedy, The Merchant of Venice, believed to have been written in 1596 was an examination of hatred and greed.The premise deals with the antagonistic relationship between Shylock, a Jewish money-lender and Antonio, the Christian merchant, who is as generous as Shylock is greedy, particularly

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Rise Of The Hippy Culture In 1960S Challenges The...

The rise of the hippy culture in 1960s challenges the cultural normativity of America. According to Blouin Shipley (2013) that, this hippy phenomena is an extension of human individualism. This has been the trend, not just in America but also in western Europe and people view this new formed group rather unique because it is deeply rooted in; â€Å"rock music, greater sexual freedom†¦.[and] drug culture among young people† (Risch 2005, p.566). According to Carrier (2011) that, by understanding post-modern deviant behaviour, it is unnecessary to use the old criteria in deviance and crime, as it will only lead to negative side-effects. Thus, new set of theory was formed to make sense on what was happening on 1960s and all fall under the†¦show more content†¦Besides the formation of the hippy culture in the 1960s, there are other events took place over the duration of the 60s, which challenges the legitimacy of the traditional explanation of crimes. While America was becoming more politically aware, this sets the Civil rights movement in motion. This reflects historically as â€Å"The civil rights movement is the great morality tale of modern America† (Scmidt 2016, p.179).Schmidt highlighted in his quote that, The civil rights movement unifies not just America but the rest of the countries for the common good and emphasizing equality. This links to Carrier (2011) idea of critical criminology deconstructs the nature of law, because the civil rights movement do such that and they fight back whenever a law becomes inconsistent or violates human rights. According to Rossi (2006) that, the events occurred during the 60s, made the young people especially university students more politically involve, to show society that their opinions also do matter. This kind of collective way of thinking will surely make some permanent changes in society. But, was the civil rights movement successful. According to Santoro (2015) that the civil rights†™ success was rather ambiguous and vague. This notion can be argued but with the effort of the civil rights movement, various laws were passed that reflects their cause (Santoro 2015).Show MoreRelatedEmerging From The Restrictive Culture Of The 1950 S Essay1765 Words   |  8 PagesEmerging from the restrictive culture of the 1950’s, the counterculture of the 1960s challenged the prescribed norms, roles and expectations of the previous generations that outcasted youth found restrictive and alienating. Baby Boomers retained the abstract goals of mainstream society; they sought individual freedom and opportunities for self-determination. But their vision of the American dream widened the traditional definitions of freedom to include bodily, psychological, and political freedomsRead MoreCounterculture - Research Paper3195 Words   |  13 Pagestrust in the system changed radically in the Sixties. Many of the numerous youth born during the post-WWII baby boom became teenagers who questioned the cultural values of their parents and refused to assimilate into the established social and moral system. They created their own counterculture that was in opposition to the established culture of their parents. â€Å"At their strongest, the movements of the Sixties amounted to an incomplete Reformation† (Gitlin 22). As Gitlin points out, this â€Å"Reformation†Read MoreCounterculture - Research Paper3180 Words   |  13 Pagesthis trust in the system changed radically in the Sixties. Many of the numerous youth born during the post-WWII baby boom became teenagers who questioned the cultural values of their parents and refused to assimilate into the established social and moral system. They created their own counterculture that was in opposition to the established culture of their parents. â€Å"At their strongest, the movements of the Sixties amounted to an incomplete Reformation† (Gitlin 22). As Gitlin points out, this â€Å"Reformation†Read MoreWhat The White Man Thinks Essay1374 Words   |  6 Pagesriots near a scale of war in the ghettos of at least a dozen major American cities (pg. 224) The Armies of the Night, which is a dazzling artifact to read, shows the way of life and attitudes at a conflict with the prevailing social norm of the late 1960 s but also an encounter of nonfiction in its own extreme experience. The short chapters each portrays the observations and experiences that were made by the author Mailer. Nature and characters that are talked about scene by scene are developed throughRead MoreDid the Impact of the Beatles Sgt Pepper Album Help Redefine Popular Music as a Culturally Significant Art Form?4164 Words   |  17 PagesSgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band is first and foremost the album that gave rise to hopes of progress in pop music (The Times, 29 May 1967) Did the impact of the Beatles Sgt Pepper album help redefine popular music as a culturally significant art form? Summary of Assignment Choose an artist from the period 1900-1970 and to examine their relationship to the cultural and social framework of their era with reference to an important or influential album. Introduction In this essay IRead MoreMusic And Social Movements Of The 1960s1793 Words   |  8 Pagessocial movements have been widely celebrated as two catalysts that can elevate the human condition by lifting spirits and undermining subordination† (Reds 10). The 1960s were a time in American history that by many can be described as chaotic. A time in history where folk music was revived, also called contemporary folk, and seeked to challenge the racial boundaries in America. A time in which Pop and Rock music were influenced by contemporary folk and revealed the discontent of the young American generationRead MoreMainstream Culture and Media after the World War II2846 Words   |  11 Pagescriticism of culture industry, where the standardization and commodification of cultural spheres became one of the major defects of the capitalistic system. The notion of class struggle shifted as well, to the clash of high and low cultural forms. Also known as authentic expression versus standardize d product of cultural industry. Most recently, the discourse has gone through another important metamorphosis that has made advertising industry and consumerism the main forces, shaping hegemonic culture of mainstreamRead MorePopular Culture at the Beginning of the 1960s Essay3766 Words   |  16 PagesPopular Culture at the Beginning of the 1960s The early 1960s was a period of time where standard of living was rising and there was more consumer goods to buy and people were on higher wages so could now afford luxury items which they would of never thought of buying. The 1960s was a period of great change, particularly in the younger generation of people. A good quote from the Prime Mister at the time sums up the early 60s in a way which many would agree with,Read MoreControversial Art1822 Words   |  8 Pagespublic in the works production by creating a situation of reciprocal interchange between artist and viewer. This was right in the middle of the sexual revolution with manuals coming out everywhere, sexual philosophers everpresent as well as the rise of the hippy and the gay rights movement. Moreover, censorship on filmic and pornographic materials was loosening up and so while many were outraged by this objectification of one would assume women, many were more happy to accept this as art. In 2008Read MoreCentral Challenges Of Community Development Theory And Practice2702 Words   |  11 Pages Identifying and investigating the structures of community power remains one of the central challenges of community development theory and practice. Researchers have long sought to understand and measure the distribution of power in organizations, local communities, nations and around the world. â€Å"†Societies are differentiated by nominal distinctions such as ethnicity or occupation, but are also differentiated by status gradations such as income or levels of education† (McVeigh, 1995). Many communities

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Oscar Wilde Essay - 879 Words

Oscar Wilde was one of the most prominent Irish born playwrights. He was a major player in the aesthetic movement, which was based on art for art’s sake. Wilde was also a novelist, playwright, poet, and critic. He was born Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wilson Wilde on October 16, 1854, in Dublin, Ireland. Wilde came from a rather large family. William Wilde, his father, had three illegitimate children previous to his marriage. They were Henry Wilson in 1838, Emily in 1847, and Mary in 1849. William provided financially for all of them. Henry studied medicine and later assisted his father at St. Mark’s Hospital. William’s brother raised Emily and Mary but both died in a fire at the ages of 24 and 22. Oscar’s mother had three children, William†¦show more content†¦This came to be one of Oscar’s favorite books. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Oscar attended Protora Royal School at Enniskillen and excelled at Classics. In 1872, he placed first in his examinations and was awarded a Foundation Scholarship. In 1874, Oscar won the college’s Berkeley Gold Medal for Greek and was awarded a Demyship (scholarship) to Magdalen College, Oxford. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Then in 1876, Oscar’s father died and Henry had to support the family, until his sudden death in 1878. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Oscar did very well at Oxford and was awarded the Newdigate prize for his poem, â€Å"Ravenna† and â€Å"First In Greats† by his teachers. After graduation he moved to London with is friend, Frank Miles, a well-known portrait painter. Then in 1881, Oscar published his first collection of poems entitled, Poems.† It was reviewed well by the critics. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In late 1881, Wilde came to New York and traveled across the United States. He gave a series of lectures on â€Å"The Aesthetics.† Originally planed to last four months, the tour stretched to almost a year. In between lectures, Oscar met with Henry Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes and Walt Whitman. He also had his play, â€Å"Vera,† staged the following year. When Oscar returned from America, he moved to Paris. He was commissioned to write a blank-verse tragedy but declined due to his social life. He then went to Ireland and BritainShow MoreRelated Oscar Wilde Essay example1047 Words   |  5 PagesOscar Wilde Oscar Wilde himself would probably admit that his life had many incredible events that themselves would make an exceedingly gripping play, his unequalled rise to become the chief celebratory of his day and his dramatic fall from grace due to his arch rival, lord Queensbury. Oscar Wilde was born among the highest social circles of Dublin Ireland to two very unique and individual parents. His father was widely regarded as the best eye and ear surgeon in the whole of Great BritainRead More The Trial of the Sensational Oscar Wilde1357 Words   |  6 PagesThe Trial of the Sensational Oscar Wilde    Ed Cohens Talk on the Wilde Side discusses the trial of Oscar Wilde in 1895. Cohen explores the lack of legal transcripts of the case which relies on newspaper press reports and accounts to document this lawsuit. His investigations into the clarity of the newspaper accounts found that they were themselves highly mediated stories whose narrative structures organized and gave meaningful shapes to the events they purported to accurately representRead MoreOscar Wilde: A Brief Biography660 Words   |  3 PagesBackground Information: Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde, son of William and Jane Wilde, was born October 16, 1854 in Dublin, Ireland. Wilde was born into a well educated and literate family, as his father was an ear and eye surgeon who had written multiple books during his practice. His mother was also a writer; she wrote articles relating to Irish nationalism, the rights of women along with multiple poems, essays, and stories (Shuman). Oscar excelled in school and received multiple recognitionsRead MoreOscar Wilde Research Paper837 Words   |  4 PagesOscar Wilde was an incredibly influential Irish poet, writer, and playwright that changed the way people wrote and the structure of writing. He was one of the greatest writers of the 18th century and possibly one of the greatest writers and wordsmiths of all time. His works earned many awards and high acclaim, even years after his death, leaving a legacy that most people would do anything for. He used a newfound way of writing and presented himself in a enigmatic and eccentric way. His clever andRead MoreEssay on Salome by Oscar Wilde1327 Words   |  6 PagesSalome by Oscar Wilde Oscar Wilde’s gruesome and controversial play begs and important question. Who is Salome? In the bible this woman is not even given a name. She is the daughter of Herodias who dances for the pleasure of her stepfather, Herod. Perhaps the very fact that she remains unnamed is part of the mystery and problem that is Salome. There was no need to name this type of woman in patriarchal Christian religion. Yet, Salome’s story continues to inspire and terrify both her championsRead MoreOscar Fingal O Flahertie Wilde1533 Words   |  7 Pagesn Dublin, Ireland, Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wilde was born on October 16, 1864. His two parents were William Wilde, a Victorian doctor, and Jane Francesca Elgee, an artistic revolutionary. They also gave birth Willie Wilde and Isola Wilde, who eventually died at the age of ten. Overall, Wilde grew up in a family full of intelligence and creativity. Because Wilde was raised with many intellectuals in his environment, he had the advantage of an advanced education beyond his years. As an eleven yearRead Moreâ€Å"The picture of Dorian Gray† Oscar Wilde- Born on 16th of October in 1854, Oscar Wilde would700 Words   |  3 PagesDorian Gray† Oscar Wilde- Born on 16th of October in 1854, Oscar Wilde would become one of Londons most famous playwrights of his time. Wilde is remembered by much of his work, including his epigrams, which were brief statements, and his most prominent novel The picture of Dorian Gray, and the conditions of his imprisonment. Wilde is known for being one of the best-personalities of his time because of his â€Å"glittering conversations†, flamboyant dresses, and his lip biting wit. While Wilde was in hisRead MoreThe Misunderstood Legacy of Oscar Wilde Essay1663 Words   |  7 PagesThe Misunderstood Legacy of Oscar Wilde Surrounded by scandal caused by his own deception, Oscar Wilde left this world with a legacy of often misunderstood wit, a brilliant collection of writing, and sordid tales of an extramarital homosexual affair. The playwright progressed from a fashionable, flippant fop immersed in London society to a man broken by the public discovery of his relationship with Lord Alfred Douglas. In his prime, Oscar Wilde was a social butterfly, admired and acceptedRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest By Oscar Wilde1750 Words   |  7 PagesBeing Earnest The Importance of Being Earnest written by Oscar Wilde takes place in 1895 and exposes the hypocritical social expectations of the end of the Victorian era. During the Victorian period, marriage was about protecting your resources and keeping socially unacceptable impulses under control. The play undeniable reveals and focuses satire around differences between the behaviors of the upper class and that of the lower class. Oscar Wilde uses comedic symbolism of specific objects and witty satireRead More Homosexuality in the Works of Oscar Wilde Essay3123 Words   |  13 PagesHomosexuality in Oscar Wildes Work      Ã‚  Ã‚   I turned half way around and saw Dorian Gray for the first time. I knew that I had come face to face with someone whose mere personality was so fascinating that, if I allowed it to do so, it would absorb my whole nature, my whole soul, my very art itself (7). During the Victorian era, this was a dangerous quote. The Victorian era was about progress. It was an attempt aimed at cleaning up the society and setting a moral standard. The Victorian era

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Returning to School free essay sample

Going back to school after six years was not only a choice but (deleted) it was necessary. One of the toughest choices I have had to make was trying to figure out when would be the right time to go back to school. No matter what I would do or say (I) life would always throw a situation my way. Then my plans would change. Not having a career has always affected my life. Finally the time came when I said that is it, its now or never. I have so much ahead of me and so many people depend on me and that is why I have decided that the time is now for my children, my husband, and for me.As a high school senior I would see my life going a whole lot different than It Is now. I was the honor student, the one that took the advanced placement classes, one to be proud of. We will write a custom essay sample on Returning to School or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page My plan was to go straight to college right after high school, but unfortunately that is not how things turned out. Now six years later, married, and with two wonderful little girls I have decided that there should be no more waiting. I want my kids to grow up being proud of their mom. Want them to see that no matter what life brings you can always work towards your goal and make things happen. My arils are my number one Inspiration.At the time being a single mother was not easy. I had work, bills, and my child to worry about, definitely no time for school. Then a wonderful man came to my life and he was more than Just a friend. He encouraged me to do better. He knew my hopes and dreams and to this day he is still inspiring and motivating me to pursue these dreams. I decided to go back to school because Just like I want my children to be proud of me, I want my husband to be proud of me as well. I want to have a degree so that I can have a good Job and be able to help provide for my family Just like he as been doing all these years.Not having a degree has been a huge disappointment for me. In high school I had such high expectations of myself and now that it has been six years and still nothing has made me feel like a failure. It certainly does not make it easy to see my friends graduate while I sit on the sideline. That is why I decided to tell myself enough is enough this Is the time. It Is my turn to shine and be someone I can be proud of, someone that could feel good about herself and not ashamed and feeling like a failure. Making the decision to return to school was the easy part. The hard part was figuring out when to go back.I chose now because if it was not now it would never happen. Life will be life and it will go on doing its job of throwing all kinds of situations at me. I want to be able to stand tall with my head up high knowing I am better. I want to feel proud of myself but most Importantly I want my family to be proud of me. All of the positive things will come my way because of my decision to go back to school now. Returning to School By millions Going back to school after six years was not only a choice (,) but (deleted) it was ,) life would always throw a situation my way.Then my plans would change. Not As a high school senior I would see my life going a whole lot different than it is want my kids to grow up being proud of their mom. I want them to see that no matter girls are my number one inspiration. Enough this is the time. It is my turn to shine and be someone I can be proud of, happen. Life will be life and it will go on doing its Job of throwing all kinds of better. I want to feel proud of myself but most importantly I want my family to be proud of me.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Movie Comparison Shane and Pale Rider Essay Example

Movie Comparison Shane and Pale Rider Essay Western film encompasses the themes of life in the true west for audiences today. Common themes in this genre include maintaining order on the frontier, good versus bad, humanity versus nature, and villains versus heroes. Most often, films set on the frontier have reoccurring elements such as Native Americans, horses, violent fighting scenes, trains, and showdowns. These elements make Western films different from any other genre. Shane and Pale Rider, both western films involve heroic characters that come to save the towns. Shane, a western movie, produced in 1953 by George Stevens, was followed by Pale Rider was created thirty-two years later by Clint Eastwood who actually starred in the film as the hero, Preacher. Pale Rider was highly influenced from Shane, These films are similar in the treatment of heroes by the assimilation of the families and hero working together to achieve tasks but are also different in the way the characters were introduced into the storyline. Firstly, Shane and Pale Rider are similar in the scenes where the heroes begin assimilate into the towns community. When Starrett, a farmer as well as father and husband, try’s to cut down a stump in his yard but again, makes no progress, Shane, a mysterious rider comes into the horizon and begins to hack away at the stump. With this action, Starrett is shocked and amused and begins to join in cutting down the tree. The teamwork of the duo shows how the hero of the story, Shane, encompasses the â€Å"other quality† a hero is defined by. Here, Shane shows his â€Å"otherliness† characteristics by doing something that Starrett or folks in general could not. This is similar to how the Preacher in Pale Rider helps Hull to get rid of the massive boulder. In Pale Rider, there was a similar scene in which the â€Å"Preacher† as he was called, helped Hull to break through a large rock he had tried to get rid of many times before. This is similar to the scene in S hane because bo We will write a custom essay sample on Movie Comparison Shane and Pale Rider specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Movie Comparison Shane and Pale Rider specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Movie Comparison Shane and Pale Rider specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Monday, March 9, 2020

Learn About the History of the Microphone

Learn About the History of the Microphone A microphone is a device for converting acoustic power into electric power with essentially similar wave characteristics. These devices convert sound waves into electrical voltages that are subsequently converted back into sound waves and amplified through speakers. Today, microphones are most often associated with the music and entertainment industries, but the devices date back as far as the 1600s when scientists began seeking out ways in which they could amplify sound. The 1600s 1665: While the word â€Å"microphone† wasn’t used until the 19th century, English physicist and inventor Robert Hooke is credited with developing an acoustic cup and string style phone and is considered a pioneer in the field of transmitting sound across distances. The 1800s 1827: Sir Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase microphone. A renowned English physicist and inventor, Wheatstone is best known for inventing the telegraph. His interests were varied, and he devoted some of his time the study of acoustics during the 1820s. Wheatstone was among the first scientists to formally recognize that sound was transmitted by waves through mediums. This knowledge led him to explore ways of transmitting sounds from one place to another, even over long distances. He worked on a device that could amplify weak sounds, which he called a microphone. 1876: Emile Berliner invented what many consider the first modern microphone while working with famed inventor Thomas Edison. Berliner, a German-born American, was best known for his invention of the Gramophone and the gramophone record, which he patented in 1887. After seeing a Bell Company demonstration at the U.S. Centennial Exposition, Berliner was inspired to find ways to improve the newly invented telephone. The Bell Telephone Companys management was impressed with the device he came up with, a telephone voice transmitter, and bought Berliners microphone patent for $50,000. (Berliners original patent was overturned and later credited to Edison.) 1878: Just a couple years after Berliner and Edison created their microphone, David Edward Hughes, a British-American inventor/music professor, developed the first carbon microphone. Hughess microphone was the early prototype for the various carbon microphones still in use today. The 20th Century 1915: The development of the vacuum tube ampliï ¬ er helped improve the volume output for devices, including the microphone. 1916: The condenser microphone, often referred to as a capacitor or an electrostatic microphone, was patented by inventor E.C. Wente while working at Bell Laboratories. Wente had been tasked with improving the audio quality for telephones but his innovations also enhanced the microphone. 1920s: As broadcast radio became one of the premier sources for news and entertainment around the world, the demand for improved microphone technology grew. In response, the RCA Company developed the first ribbon microphone, the PB-31/PB-17, for radio broadcasting. 1928: In Germany, Georg Neumann and Co. was founded and rose to fame for its microphones. Georg Neumann designed the first commercial condenser microphone, nicknamed â€Å"the bottle† because of its shape. 1931: Western Electric marketed its 618 Electrodynamic Transmitter, the ï ¬ rst dynamic microphone. 1957: Raymond A. Litke, an electrical engineer with Educational Media Resources and San Jose State College  invented and filed a patent for the first wireless microphone. It was designed for multimedia applications including television,  radio, and higher education. 1959: The Unidyne III microphone was the first uni-directional device designed to collect sound from the top of the microphone, rather than the side. This set a new level of design for microphones in the future. 1964: Bell Laboratories researchers James West and Gerhard Sessler received patent no. 3,118,022 for the electroacoustic transducer, an electret microphone. The electret microphone offered greater reliability and higher precision at a lower cost and with a smaller size. It revolutionized the microphone industry, with almost one billion units manufactured each year. 1970s: Both dynamic and condenser mics were further enhanced, allowing for a lower sound level sensitivity and a clearer sound recording. A number of miniature mics were also developed during this decade. 1983: Sennheiser developed the first clip-on microphones: one that was a directional mic (MK# 40) and one that was designed for the studio (MKE 2). These microphones are still popular today. 1990s: Neumann introduced the KMS 105, a condenser model designed for live performances, setting a new standard for quality. The 21st Century 2000s: MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) microphones begin making inroads in portable devices including cell phones, headsets, and laptops. The trend for miniature mics continues with applications such as wearable devices, smart home, and automobile technology, 2010: The Eigenmike was released, a microphone that is composed of several high-quality microphones arranged on the surface of a solid sphere, allowing the sound to be captured from a variety of directions. This allowed for greater control when editing and rendering sound. Sources Leslie, Clara Louise,  Who Invented the Microphone?  Radio Broadcast, 1926Who Invented the Microphone: How Emile Berliner came up with the invention and how it has impacted the broadcasting industry. The History Engine. Digital Scholarship Lab.  The University of Richmond,  © 2008–2015  Shechmeister, Matthew. The Birth of the Microphone: How Sound Became Signal. January 11, 2011Bartelbaugh, Ron. Trends in Technology: Microphones. RadioWorld. December 1, 2010

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Inorgnic Synthesis Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Inorgnic Synthesis - Lab Report Example Test for SO42- required use of BaCl2 whereby the resulting component was a precipitate of BaSO42- whereas that of Al3+ yielded to a cloudy precipitate by adding KOH and disappearing in excess. During the experiment, the first step was to cut aluminum foil into small pieces, hence increase their surface area for effective and quick reaction. Afterwards, the prepared pieces of aluminum foils were put in a beaker having a capacity if 150 ml and its weight taken before they were put in a 250 ml whose weight together with its contents was 1104.7g. Then the rest of the experiment was transferred to the fume hood to void inhaling of obnoxious gases while reactions were in progress. 13 ml of 3M KOH were added in the 250 ml beaker coupled with stirring continuously to ensure all the aluminum pieces were completely dissolved. Observations made during this process encompassed bubbling reaction, black color and elevation of the contents’ temperature above the room’s ordinary. Upon completion of the entire reaction process, the contents were cooled to room temperature whereby the involved chemical equation was as follows, The cooled contents were then filtered using glass wool. This is by putting glass wool in a funnel and in 100 ml beaker whereby based on the resulting filtrate’s clearance one could do another filtration to ensure clearer resultant. There was rinsing of the glass wool (using 2 ml of hot water) before allowing resulting filtrate to cool and addition of 22 ml of 4M H2SO4. On adding of 23 ml of 4M H2SO4, the filtrate stated to change its appearance from black color to colorless before becoming dense near the bottom of the beaker. This was a precipitate while the reaction equation that took place encompassed, After the above reaction, the resultant was heat on a hot plate (5-10 minutes) to vaporize excess liquid to approximately 25 ml then testing